Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations

Palinurus elephas (Fabricius, 1787)

    Geographical distribution
    Maximum size
    Length at first maturity
    Eggs, larvae and post-larvae
    Recruitment and nursery areas
    Sex Ratio
    Length-weight relationship
    Maximum age and natural mortality
    Von Bertalanffy growth function (VBGF)
    Feeding behaviour
    Stock Units
    Biomass indices from trawl surveys
    Strength of recruitment
    Stock assessment
    Fishing zones and seasons
    Fishing pattern and discards
    Legislation and Management

Figure 53. Palinurus elephas female: a) dorsal face (FAO, Fischer et al., 1987) and
b) ventral face (Rjeibi, 2012). P1, P2, P3, P4, P5: 1st to 5th pereiopods. Pleo: pleopods.

Class:  Malacostraca
Order:  Decapoda
Family:  Palinuridae
English name:  Spiny lobster


The external morphology of Palinurus elephas is similar to that of other members of the Stridentes group of Palinurids (Figure 53). The body of lobster is compartmentalized into a cephalotorax, which consists of the fused head and thorax and an abdomen, with their respective appendages (Holthuis, 1991). Appendages of cephalotorax include the movable eyes, the antennae and antennulae (with defensive, mechanoreception and chemoreception function), the mouth and five pairs of legs. Six separate somites form the abdomen, each protected by chitinous coverings on the dorsal, ventral and lateral (pleura) portions. The pleura encloses the pleopods, which are used to swim and form appendages on the first five abdominal somites. The first two pairs of pleopods form copulatory organ in the males, whilst in mature females the pleopods become setose to enclose the egg mass (Lipcius and Herrnkind, 1987). Colouration is reddish-brown dorsally with a white underside, although a wide range of variations is possible (Hunter et al., 1996). P. elephas is further characterised by two large symmetrical white blotches on the tergites of somites 1-5, with a single, centrally located blotch on the final segment. A further two symmetrical blotches are located on the telson.
The relationship between the total length (TL), measured from the tip of the rostrum to the posterior end of the telson and the carapace length (CL), measured from the tip of the rostrum to the posterior margin of the cephalothorax, was manly studied for different populations. Hunter (1999) summarizes the TL-CL relationships for different Atlantic areas. In the Table 23, some available relationships for various Mediterranean areas were exposed.

Table 23. Total length (TL)–Carapace length (CL) relationship in Palinurus elephas in some Mediterranean areas. GSA: Geographical Sub-Area

Mediterranean areas




Corsica Island, GSA 8

TL = 2.77 CL + 6.38
n=278, range 50-160 mm CL

TL = 2.47 CL + 22.07
n=417, range 45-175 mm CL

Campillo and Amadei, 1978
Sardinia, GSA 11

TL = 1.114 CL1.009
n=356, range 44-98 mm CL

TL = 1.272 CL0.9613
n=465, range 44-98 mm CL
Tidu et al., 2004
Columbretes (Balearic) Islands, GSA 5

TL = 2.88 CL + 12.51
n=441, range 41-142 mm CL

TL = 2.51 CL + 32.04
n=370, range 45-169 mm CL
Quetglas et al., 2004
Northern Tunisia, GSA 12

TL = 2.48 CL + 32.54
n=89, range 93-148 mm CL

TL = 2.34 CL + 38.36
n=91, range 61-167 mm CL
Quetglas et al., 2004
Northern Tunisia, GSA 12

TL = 2.41 CL + 42.25
n=268, range 58-136 mm CL

TL = 2.32 CL + 39.68
n=262, range 46-161 mm CL
Rjeibi, unpublished data


Geographical distribution
The European spiny lobster Palinurus elephas (Fabricius, 1787), is common along the Northeast Atlantic coasts (Ireland and South of England), Azores and Canary Islands and also off Marocco (Figure 54). Throughout the Mediterranean P. elephas occurs over the entire western basin (Balearics, Corsica, Sardinia, Sicily and Tunisia, Marin, 1985), it is abundant in Adriatic and Aegean Sea (Morratoupolu Kassimati, 1973), but it is absent in the extreme eastern and south-eastern basins (Holthuis, 1991; Hunter, 1999).

P. elephas lives between the shore and 200m depth on rocky and coralligenous substrates where micro-caves, crevices and natural holes are available (Ceccaldi and Latrouite, 2000). Habitation of shelters may be solitary or in pairs and small groups, probably dictated by gregarious behaviour adapted for protection from diurnally active predators. As documented for other palinurids (Zimmer-Faust et al., 1985) the aggregative behaviour of P. elephas adult specimens (Mercer, 1973), may be driven by chemical (Gristina et al., 2011) or visual stimuli depending on the quality of the surrounding habitat (Eggleston and Lipcius, 1992). Adults of P. elephas are primarily nocturnal (Giacalone et al., 2006) when specimens left their shelters by foraging and reproduction. P. elephas is highly omnivorous and preys on hard–shelled bottom dwelling organisms, principally molluscs, echinoderms, crustaceans, polychaete worm tubes, bryozoans, fish bones and macroalgae (Ansell and Robb, 1977; Campillo and Amadei, 1978; Mercer, 1973). P. elephas appears to change its food preferences as a function of the abundance of benthic organisms present in the foraging area. While molluscs and sea urchins are the most important prey in the diet of the species, other preys are consumed in certain areas and not in others (Goñi et al., 2001a). However, the predominance of shell fragments and calcareous algae may reflect calcium requirements prior the moulting phase (Campillo and Amadei, 1978; Mercer, 1973). Captive specimens rejected fresh fish in favour of mussel and oyster (Campillo and Amadei, 1978) and learned how to extract and consume hermit crabs (Wilson, 1949).

Figure 54. Distribution of Palinurus elephas in the Western Mediterranean Sea and north-east Atlantic Ocean, including the western coast of North Africa, Canary Islands, and the Azores (not on map) by Groeneveld et al., 2006).

In the Atlantic P. elephas undertakes a pre-reproductive spring onshore migration and a reverse post-reproductive offshore migration in late autumn (Mercer, 1973; Ansell and Robb, 1977). A similar behaviour has been postulated for P. elephas off the Columbretes Islands (GSA 5) (Goñi et al., 2001b). Tag-recapture studies indicate that adult movement is restricted, with most animals moving less than 5 km and exceptionally up to 20 km after 1 to 8 years at large (Hepper, 1967; 1970; Marin, 1987; Goñi et al., 2001b; Cuccu, 1999). Giacalone et al. (2006), in their experience to follow the movement of P. elephas released in the Isola delle Femmine MPA (GSA 10, South Tyrrhenian Sea) by the application of an ultrasonic telemetry system, showed that the longest distance travelled by target lobster was 2.2 km during the 79 days of study. However, two reports of movements of 50 and 70 km have been made in the Mediterranean (GSA 9, Relini and Torchia, 1998; GSA 11, Secci et al., 1999). Although recent studies indicate that P. elephas undertakes limited movements, ca. 2.5 km year-1 (GSA 5, Goñi et al., 2006; GSA 11, Follesa et al., 2009). No available data on migration in the northern sector of Strait of Sicily (GSA 15 and 16) and also in the southern one (Tunisian costal, GSA 12 and 13).


Maximum size
According to Fischer et al. (1987) P. elephas in Mediterranean Sea may reach a maximum size of 50cm of total length.
In the northern sector of the Strait of Sicily (GSA 15 and 16) data on the maximum size of P. elephas are scarce or anedoctical. Gristina et al. (2005) using landing analysis at Marettimo fishery (Egadi Islands, GSA 10) reported a maximum size of 120mm (CL) both for male and female, whilst Gristina et al. (2008) at Isola delle Femmine MPA (N/W Sicily, GSA 10) reported a maximum size of 145mm (CL) both for male and female.
In the southern sector (GSA 12), Rjeibi (2012) by population size frequencies distributions analysis (during the period 2001-2006) reported a maximum size of 155mm (CL) for female and 195mm (CL) for male.

Length at first maturity
The mean size at maturity has been established for P. elephas populations in Atlantic and Mediterranean water. Available estimates of length at the first maturity for some Mediterranean population, especially for the southern Strait of Sicily (GSA 12), are given in Table 24. However, no data are available for the northern sector of the Strait of Sicily.

Table 24. Length (mm CL) at first physiological and functional maturity, by sex, for Palinurus elephas from some Mediterranean areas


Physiological maturity


Method Source
Females Males Females

Balearic Island

76.5 (n=192)
74-76 (n=67)
82,7 (n=94)
77.2 (n=683)
Percent of mature or berried
Plot Log(GW)-log(CL)
Goñi et al., 2003a

Corsica Island

80 (n=98)
76 (n=57)
78 (n=53)
86 (n=1169)
Percent of mature or berried
Plot Log(GW)-log(CL)
Marin, 1987

North Tunisia

75,56 (n=120)
85,19 (n=91)
83,1-85,1 (n=41)
79,08 (n=35)
Percent of mature or berried
Plot Log(GW)-log(CL)
Rjeibi, 2012

P. elephas
breed once during the year. In the Atlantic, mating is reported to occur between June and November (Mercer, 1973; Hunter et al., 1996; Gahlardo et al., 2006) and egg laying peaks in September-October (Mercer, 1973; Hunter et al., 1996; Latrouite and Noël, 1997). Spawning season has been also identified in Mediterranean areas and it varies depending on the region (Table 25). However, no data are available for the Sicilian side of the Strait of Sicily (GSA 15 and 16).
Oviposition takes place shortly after mating (i.e., 2 days, Mercer, 1973; 5-10 days, Ansell and Robb, 1977) and eggs are shed across the spermatophoric; egg extrusion may take place in less than two hours (Mercer, 1973).

Table 25. Spawning period and the peaks of laying for P. elephas in some Mediterranean areas.

AREA/GSA Spawning period Peaks of laying Source Mean number of eggs for berried female

17 and 18 Adriatic Sea
20 Eastern Ionian Sea
8 Corsica
8 Corsica
GSA 5Balearic Island
GSA 12 North Tunisia

August to November
August to November
July to September
July to September
July to October

Gamulin, 1955
Moraitopoulou- Kassimati, 1973
Campillo and Amadei, 1978
Marin, 1985
Goñi et al., 2003a
Rjeibi et al., 2010; Rjeibi, 2012

In GSA 12, all mature males reach their gonad maturation during May-July and copulate during August-October (Rjeibi, 2012). The analysis of the evolution of male gonads index indicates that males copulate and re-charge the gonads repeatedly through the breeding season. This observation on male reproductive activity in spiny lobster may be supported by a perspective gonad male histological study.

In the Mediterranean Sea, the fecundity-body size relationship of P. elephas has been studied only in some region for exploited (GSA 8, GSA 12) and for protected populations (GSA 5) (Table 26). The mean fecundity of the population and means relative fecundity (nb eggs/body gram) have been also estimated. In the GSA 5 and 8, the equation of fecundity is linear. However, in the GSA 12, it is a power function, according to Authors; it explained the difference in reproductive trends between large and small females.

Table 26. Fecundity (F)-Carapace length (CL) relationship, mean fecundity and mean relative fecundity for some Mediterranean populations of P. elephas.

AREA/GSA F-CL relationship Mean absolute fecundity Mean relative fecundity Source

GSA 5 Balearic Island

GSA 8 Corsica

GSA 12 NorthTunisia

F=2428 CL-148988 (R²= 0.85, n=70)

F=3003 CL-229809 (R²= 0.97, n=24)

F=3.8 10-4 CL4.2 (R²= 0.94, n=93)

299882 eggs

67188 eggs

92232 eggs

3118±33 eggs/g


116±32 eggs/g

Goñi et al., 2003a

Campillo and Amadei, 1978

Rjeibi, 2012

Eggs, larvae and post-larvae
Egg incubation lasts 4-5 months in the Western Mediterranean, GSA 8 and GSA 5 (Campillo and Amadei, 1978; Marin, 1985; Goñi et al., 2003a). No information is available for the Strait of Sicily (GSA 12, 13, 15 and 16) from the literature. But in a study on captivity on spiny lobster caught from the GSA 12 (Rjeibi et al., unpublished data), they observed that egg incubation in Tunisian water must lasts 5 months. In GSA 12, berried females were caught from all the fishing areas (Gaamour et al., 2005; Rjeibi, 2012).
Hatching occurs in December-February in the GSA 17, 18, 8 and 5 (Gamulin, 1955; Campillo and Amadei, 1978; Goñi et al., 2003a). Hatching may be completed in 24 hours (Mercer, 1973), although in aquaria it may last up to 8 days (Karlovac, 1965). No information is available for the Strait of Sicily. However, in captivity it may be completed in 24h for specimens from the GSA 12 (Rjeibi et al., unpublished data).
As all Palinurids, the larvae of P. elephas is a leaf-like, transparent planktonic zoea called phyllosoma (Cunningham, 1891, in Goñi and Latrouite, 2005), which adapted to a long offshore drifting life. There is no available information on its geographic distribution and its displacement in the Strait of Sicily.
P. elephas post larvae settle in holes and crevices of rocky coastal habitat. However, Marin (1987) off Corsica (GSA 8) and Jiménez et al. (1996) along the Iberian Peninsula (GSA 1 and 6) reported large quantities of juveniles over Posidonia oceanica beds. Settlement takes place in summer at a preferential bathymetric layer ranging from 5 and 15 m (Díaz et al., 2001; Gristina et al., 2008).

Recruitment and nursery areas
Due to the biological characteristics of the young of the year (camouflage, cripticity, solitary) and to the very low catchability to the traditional gears (pots, trammel nets) identification of nursery areas for P. elephas results, to date, very difficult. However, the introduction of trammel net with narrower mesh size and of gill net allows for general information to be obtained on the juvenile concentration areas. In addition, in the recent period, many studies based on the underwater visual census methods permit identification of the biological and geomorphologic characteristics of the preferential habitat of the European Spiny lobster. Diaz et al. (2001) in the western Mediterranean Sea (GSA 5 and 6) and Gristina et al. (2008) in N/W coast of Sicily (GSA 10) observed that calcarenitic rocks with a high number of crevices and holes represents an appropriate habitat for recruits and early juveniles. Although no specific surveys were carried out along the northern sector of the Strait of Sicily, it is reasonable to image that calcareous rock both along the coast and in the off-shore banks could represent an appropriate substrate for settlement. Interviews carried out with fishermen allow us to identify areas of concentration of juveniles in Marettimo Island and in high sea rocky banks.

Sex Ratio
In Spanish fisheries (GSA 6), the sex-ratio is variable depending on the month sampling. The females are dominant at the beginning of summer and winter with a femininity rate of about 66%. The abundance of male increases in June and middle winter, femininity rate is about 50% (Goñi et al., 2001b). Predominance of females was also observed throughout the year for P. elephas from Corsica (GSA 8) (Campillo, 1982).
In Tunisian water (GSA 12), the sex-ratio of P. elephas is in favour of males. They dominate whatever the period and area sampling (Rjeibi, 2012). Femininity rates reach a maximum during August-September and decrease in October. The annual male dominance in Tunisian population can be explained by the difference in catchability between the two sexes, by the faster growth of males and/or by the greater natural mortality of females (Rjeibi, 2012; Rjeibi et al., 2011).

Length-weight relationship
The carapace length versus weight (CL versus W) as morphometric relationships was studied and reported in Mediterranean Sea (Table 27).

Table 27. Parameters of the length–weight relationships (W = a CLb, where W = Total body weight and CL = carapace length) of spiny lobster in some Mediterranean areas. CL is expressed in mm.




a b CL range a b CL range

8 Corsica
11 Sardinia
11 Sardinia
5 Columbretes Islands
12 North Tunisia
12 North Tunisia


Except for Tidu et al. (2004), these publications showed that for the same size males are slightly heavier than females. But, Rjeibi (2012), during length-weight relationships analysis for Tunisian spiny lobster (GSA 12), showed that this difference is more significant for specimens greater than 80mm CL (puberty) and he linked this difference to greater participation of females after the puberty in reproduction, especially during incubation. Tidu et al. (2004) have reported an interannual variability in length-weight relationships for both sexes from NW Sardinian water (GSA 11) and they related this difference to the changes in food availability that have been found linked to some physical environmental features such as temperature and salinity. Accordingly, for a better estimation of W from the length-weight relationships, we suggest yearly calculation of this relation for P. elephas and for two sizes intervals before and after puberty.

Maximum age and natural mortality
Maximum age and the coefficient of natural mortality have been estimated for some P. elephas Mediterranean populations as in Table 6. However, no data on the natural mortality are available for the Sicilian side of the Strait of Sicily.
Predation is probably the major cause of natural mortality of P. elephas. In particular juvenile and moulting specimens represent a very vulnerable stage threatened by a wide range of predators (Marin, 1985). In the southern sector, Rjeibi (2012) estimates the natural mortality for Tunisian population (GSA 12) in its exploitable phase and separately by sexes. He showed that, as in other crustaceans, this mortality varies with size, especially between juveniles and adults. Hence and in the case that it will be used in population dynamic analysis, natural mortality was estimated only for the exploitation phase size interval.

Von Bertalanffy growth function (VBGF)
The Von Bertalanffy growth function (VBGF) parameters, by sex, in different Mediterranean areas are given in Tables 28 and 29 and in Figures 55 and 56.

Table 28. Maximum age and natural mortality (M) for Palinurus elephas in Mediterranean areas

GSA Masimum age M M estimation method Source

8 Corsica

15 years  (sex combined)

0.15-0.30 year−1

speculative arguments

Marin, 1987

11 Sardinia

15 years  (sex combined) 0.24-0.31 year−1

modified standard method based on age frequency distributions

Bevacqua et al., 2010

5 Balearic

  0.14-0.26 year−1

modeling approach

Goñi et al., 2010

12 Northern
15 year (female),
20 years (male)
0.31 year−1 (female),
0.24 year−1 (male)
Mean of seven indirect methods Rjeibi, 2012;
Rjeibi et al., 2011

Table 29. Von Bertalanffy growth function parameters in Palinurus elephas by sex and area.

GSA Sex L K t0 CL range (mm) Method Source

8 Corsica







Marin, 1987

11 Sardinia

Tagging-recapture Follesa et al., 2003
12 Northern
Size frequencies analysis Rjeibi et al., 2011

The difference in growth between the GSA 12 and the two others areas can be due to the difference in the estimation method. The tagging-recapture based on a limited interval size could underestimate growth parameters. Size frequencies analysis, which can be influenced by the sampling method and its success, could provoke an overestimation of these parameters. But also, studies in Palinuridae suggested that food availability, environmental factors as temperature and dissolute oxygen rate and population density (which can be influenced by exploitation) are important in the determination of growth rate by region (Newman and Pollock, 1974; Pollock, 1979; 1982; 1991; McKoy and Esterman, 1981; Pollock and Beyers, 1981).

Figure 55. Growth curves of female red spiny lobster from Mediterranean areas (derived from parameters given in Table 29). GSA 12 = Northern Tunisia; GSA 8 = Corsica Island; GSA 11 = Sardinia Island. Figure 56. Growth curves of male red spiny lobster from Mediterranean areas (derived from parameters given in Table 29). GSA 12 = Northern Tunisia; GSA 8 = Corsica Island; GSA 11 = Sardinia Island.

Feeding behaviour
P. elephas preys on a variety of benthic organisms. It is highly omnivorous and preys on hard-shelled bottom dwelling organisms, principally molluscs, echinoderms and crustaceans. It is an opportunistic feeder that appears to change its food preferences as a function of the abundance of benthic organisms (Goñi et Latrouite, 2005). While molluscs and sea urchins are the most important prey in the diet of the species, other prey such as decapods crustaceans, ophiuroids or coralline algae are consumed in certain areas and not in others (Goñi et al., 2001a). Mercer (1973) and Goñi et al. (2001a) have described quantitatively their diet off Ireland and the Western Mediterranean. There is no available information on the diet of this species in the Strait of Sicily.

Stock Units
The stock structure of red spiny lobster in the strait of Sicily is still not well known and needs further studies. The GSA 12 and an area of the GSA 10 close to it (Isola delle femmine and Capo Gallo from N/W of Sicily) were included in phylogeographic and population genetic structure studies (Palero et al., 2008, 2011; Babbucci et al., 2010). These studies showed genetic variability between Mediterranean areas and a possible higher gene diversity for the Tunisian population (GSA 12). This supposes that maybe there is more than one stock unit in the Strait of Sicily, which must be confirmed by genetic study in this region. However, Goñi et al., (2006), in the case of their experience “Ocean circulation and Larval drift”, released three drifting buoys in the Columbretes reserve (GSA 5) at the time of egg hatching of P. elephas (January). One of these buoys reached the Strait of Sicily in April. After egg hatching, pelagic phyllosoma larvae drift in ocean currents during 4-5 months, corresponding to its larval life period (January-May). This must suppose a possible drifting of phyllosoma from other Mediterranean areas to the Strait of Sicily.


Biomass indices from trawl surveys
There is little information in literature on biomass and density indices from the northern side of Strait of Sicily (GSA 15, 16). In southern one, Gaamour et al. (2005) reported a catch rate of 3.4 (number of lobster/day/500m net) in the GSA 12.

Strength of recruitment
A There is little information on recruitment and stock-recruitment relationships for P. elephas populations. Marin (1987) reported that recruitment occurs in fishing areas in GSA 8 from the size of 40mm CL. Based on Length Cohort Analysis (LCA), he estimated the number of recruit for each sex between 458000 to 801900. In the southern Strait of Sicily (GSA 12), based on LCA, Rjeibi (2012) estimated the number of recruit for females between 230053 and 346967 and for males between 370381 and 537020.

Stock assessment
Based on different models of population dynamics, the Tunisian stocks of P. elephas are at their maximum level of exploitation or in state of biologic overexploitation (Gaamour et al., 2009; Rjeibi, 2012). These Authors have proposed some measures to improve the stock status: 1) Mimimum Legal Size can be ameliorated in order to increase the number of lobster which participate in spawning processes and increase the fecundity of the spawning stock biomass and the consequent recruitment. 2) based on Fox model, the total allowable catch (TAC) can be fixed to 31 tons per year. 3) based on length-cohort and relative yield-per-recruit analysis, by sex, the current fishing effort must be reduced for female and male by 32% and 42%, respectively, to reach an optimum exploitation of Tunisian populations. 4) based on the capture composition analysis of three mesh size of trammel nets used by professional vessels, the mesh size of nets during spiny lobster fishing season must be greater than 70 mm.

P. elephas is intensively exploited in the Mediterranean Sea and the north-eastern Atlantic (Goñi et al., 2003a). It is traditionally targeted by artisanal fisheries, but the change in fishing strategy (from traps to trammel nets) that took place between the 1960s and the 1970s has severely impacted lobster populations (Hunter, 1999; Goñi and Latrouite, 2005). Consequently, lobster catches have declined in most of the distribution range during recent decades (Goñi et al., 2003a; Goñi and Latrouite, 2005).
In Tunisian waters (GSA 12), a major change in the exploitation strategy took place during the 1980s with the introduction of trammel-nets that progressively replaced the traditional methods. This change in fishing strategy was followed by a greater increase in spiny lobster landings and in the number of vessels targeting it (especially during 1990s), hence excessive fishing of species. These changes and excessive fishing methods had an impact as observed on the populations of other species: on exploitation levels, demography and sex composition of the exploited populations (Hunter et al., 1996; Goñi et al., 2003b; Goñi et Latrouite, 2005). Those (negatives influences) were observed for Tunisian population since the year 2000. Since then, the average size of exploited fraction and fishing yields have been in decline.

The annual evolution of landings of European spiny lobsters in Mediterranean and Black Sae and in the Atlantic are reported in Figure 57. Since 2000, the landings increase in the Mediterranean and Black Sea however they decrease in the Atlantic.

Figure 57. Annual evolution of landings of European spiny lobsters in Mediterranean and Black Sea and in the Atlantic (Northeast) (FAO FishStat Plus 2012).

The increase of European spiny lobster landings in the Mediterranean and Black Sea can be attributed to the evolution of Italian landings (Figure 58).

Figure 58. Annual evolution of landings of P. elephas in Mediterranean and Black Sea by country (FAO-FishStat Plus).


Fishing zones and seasons
In southern side of Strait of Sicily (GSA 12), 5 zones were the most frequented by Tunisian professional boat targeting red spiny lobster (Figure 59).

Figure 59. Fishing zones in GSA 12, Northern Tunisia (Rjeibi, 2012).

Since 2000 in the GSA 12, the fishing yields are in decline in Tunisian fisheries (Figure 60).

Figure 60. Evolution of CPUE (Kg per fishing day) during the period 2000-2008 in Tunisian P. elephas fishery, GSA 12, Northern Tunisia (Gaamour et al., 2009).

Fishing pattern and discards
In Tunisian waters (GSA 12) generally, P. elephas present 47 % of the total weight of species caught by trammel net. This percentage can be divided into 3 parts: 73% are marketable specimens, 23% are discards (damaged) and 4% illegal size (Quetglass et al., 2004).

P. elephas in Tunisian water is targeted by artisanal vessels called “langoustier” using trammel net with mesh size greater than 70 mm (length: 500-1000 m, height: 2.5m and mesh size: 70-80 mm, Gaamour et al., 2009). P. elephas is also caught by artisanal vessels (using finfish netting of 40mm) and by bottom trawling (Figure 61).

Figure 61. Annual evolution of the percent of the red spiny lobster landing production by gear.

Fishing pattern and discards
P. elephas is signaled in the appendix III of Barcelona convention as species with regulated exploitation and in the appendix III of Berne convention as protected fauna species in the Mediterranean Sea.
All Mediterranean P. elephas populations are managed at national level. In Italian and Maltese waters the minimum landing size (MLS) is 90 mm CL. The fishery is closed from January 1st to April 30th (EU Reg. 2006) which covers only one part of the breeding season and berried females are to be returned to the water (Gristina et al., 2002; Gristina et al. 2005).
In Tunisian waters, the fishing activity is regulated by an annual closure during the period July-February for territorial water and 15th September-February for international waters, by a MLS of 20cm of total length (TL) corresponding to 70mm CL and by a ban on catching berried females. According to biological studies on this species in Tunisian waters (Gaamour et al., 2009; Rjeibi, 2012), the annual closure in international waters does not cover the peak of the breading season which occurs during August and MLS is smaller than the length at the first functional maturity which is about 80mm CL corresponding to 23cm of TL. The mesh size of outer panels in trammel nets may also be regulated and the minimum size of 70mm was proposed. This last regulation is only considered by the artisanal vessels called “langoustiers” for which red spiny lobster is a target species. However, a considerable quantity of lobsters was caught as bycatch by artisanal vessels (using finfish netting of 40 mm) and by bottom trawling.

REFERENCES click to enlarge

A.A.V.V. (2008). Status of deep-sea red shrimps in the Central and Eastern Mediterranean Sea. Final Report. Project Ref. FISH/2004/03-32.

Abelló P., Valladares F.J., Castellón A. (1988). Analysis of the structure of decapod crustacean assemblages off Catalan coast (North-West Mediterranean). Mar. Biol., 98: 39-49.

Abellò P., Abella A., Adamidou A., Jukic-Peladic S., Maiorano P., Spedicato M.T. (2002). Geographical patterns in abundance and population structure of Nephrops norvegicus and Parapenaeus longirostris (Crustacea: Decapoda) along the European Mediterranean coasts. Sci. Mar., 66 (2): 125-141.

Alverson D.L., Freeberg S.S., Muraski S.S., Pope J.G. (1994). A global assessment of fisheries by-catch and discards. FAO Fish. Tech. Pap., 339: 233 pp.

Andreoli, M.G., Campanella, N., Cannizzaro, L., Garofalo, G., Giusto, G.B., Jereb, P., Levi, D., Norrito, G., Ragonese, S., Rizzo, P., Sinacori, G. (1995) Sampling statistics of southern Sicily trawl fisheries (MINIPESTAT): data report. NTR–ITPP Special Publication 4 (vol. II).

Anon. (2000). Analysis of trawls’ discard operation in the central and eastern Mediterranean Sea. Commission of the European Communities. Directorate-General for Fisheries XIV. Contract No 97/0044. Final Report.

Ansell A.D., Robb L. (1977). The spiny lobster Palinurus elephas in Scottish water. Mar. Biol., 43: 63-70.

Ardizzone G.D., Gravina M.F., Belluscio A., Schintu P. (1990). Depth–size distribution pattern of Parapenaeus longirostris (Lucas, 1846) (Decapoda) in the central Mediterranean Sea. J. Crustac. Biol., 10(1): 139-147.

Audouin J. (1965). Répartition bathymétrique des crevettes sur les côtes algériennes entre les îles Zaffarines et les îles Habibats. Commission Internationale pour l’Exploration Scientifique de la Mer Méditerranée, 18: 171-174

Azouz A. (1971). Etude des biocénoses, benthiques et de la faune ichtyologique des fonds chalutables de la Tunisie; régions nord et sud-est. Thèse Sci. nat, Univ. Caen: 243 pp.

Azouz A. (1972). Les crustacés comestibles (crevettes et langoustines) des mers tunisiennes. Bull. Int. natn. scient. tech. Océanogr. Pêche. Salammbô, 2 (3) : 275 - 301.

Azouz A. (1981). Réflexions en vue de l’amélioration de la production de la crevette royale dans le golfe de Gabès. Bull. Off. Nat. Pêche. Tunisie, 5 (2) : 101 – 113.

Babbucci M., Buccoli S., Cau A., Cannas R., Goñi R., Díaz D., Marcato S., Zane L., Patarnello T. (2010). Population structure, demographic history, and selective processes: contrasting evidences from mitochondrial and nuclear markers in the European spiny lobster Palinurus elephas (Fabricius, 1787). Mol. Phyl. Evol., 56: 1040-1050.

Bailey N. (1984). Some Aspects of Reproduction in Nephrops. Shellfish Committee Document CM 1984/K:33. ICES: 16 pp.

Bauer R.T. (1991). Sperm transfer and storage structures in penaeoid shrimp: a functional and phylogenetic perspective. In: R.T. Bauer and J.W. Martin, Crustacean sexual biology, Columbia University Press: 183-207.

Becer Özvarol Z.A., Tasly A., Ozvarol Y. (2006). Some biological properties of the shrimp Metapenaeus monoceros (Fabricius, 1798) in the Gulf of Anatalya in the Mediterranean (Turkey). J.World. Aquac. Soc.: 15 pp.

Belcari P., Viva C., Mori M., De Ranieri S. (2003). Fishery and biology of Aristaeomorpha foliacea (Risso, 1827) (Crustacea: Decapoda) in the Northern Tyrrhenian Sea (Western Mediterranean). J. Northw. Atl. Fish. Sci., 31: 195-204.

Bell M.C., Redant F., Tuck I. (2006). "Nephrops Species". In Bruce F. Phillips. Lobsters: Biology, Management, Aquaculture and Fisheries. Wiley-Blackwell. 412–461.

Bello G., Pipitone C. (2002). Predation on cephalopods by the giant red shrimp Aristaeomorpha foliacea. J. Mar. Biol. Ass. U.K., 82(2): 213-218.

Ben Abdallah O. (2005). Contribution à l’étude biologique et dynamique de la crevette mouchetée Metapenaeus monoceros (Fabricius, 1798) dans le golfe de Gabès (Tunisie). Mastère. INAT. 68 p.

Ben Abdallah-Ben Hadj Hamida O. (2012). Etude biologique et dynamique de la crevette mouchetée Metapenaeus monoceros (Fabricius, 1798) exploitée dans le golfe de Gabès (Tunisie). Thèse de doctorat. INAT. 281 p.

Ben Hadj Hamida-Ben Abdallah O., Ben Hadj Hamida N., Jarboui O., Fiorentino F., Missaoui H. (2009). Reproductive biology of the speckled shrimp Metapenaeus monoceros (Fabricius, 1798) (Decapoda: Penaeidae) in the gulf of Gabes (Southern Tunisia, Eastern Mediterranean). Cahiers de Biologie Marine, vol. 50, no3, pp. 231-240.

Ben Hadj Hamida-Ben Abdallah O., Ben Hadj Hamida N., Jarboui O., Missaoui H. (2010). Age and growth of the speckled shrimp Metapenaeus monoceros (Fabricius, 1798) in the Gulf of Gabes (Southern Tunisia, Central Mediterranean). Cahiers de Biologie Marine, vol. 51, no3, pp. 265-274.

Ben Khemis L. (1984). Pêche à la crevette dans le golfe de Gabès. Rapp. Doc. Inst. natn. scient. tech. Océanogr. Pêche. Salammbô, 2: 3 - 30.

Ben Meriem S. (1992). Eléments en vue d’un aménagement des pêcheries du golfe de Gabès, Tunisie. Bull. Inst. natn. scient. tech. Océanogr. Pêches. Salammbô, 19 : 66 - 84.

Ben Meriem S. (1993). Taille de première maturité sexuelle et période de ponte de Penaeus kerathurus du golfe de Gabès (Decapoda, Penaeoidea). Crustaceana, 65(1): 82 - 96.

Ben Meriem S. (1994). Aristaeomorpha foliacea and Aristeus antennatus in Tunisian waters. Proc. Int. Workshop on life cycles and fisheries of red shrimps, N.T.R.-I.T.P.P. Sec. Publ., 3: 50.

Ben Meriem S. (1995). Caractères biométriques de Penaeus kerathurus du golfe de Gabès (Decapoda, Penaeoidea). Crustaceana, 68(5): 583 - 596.

Ben Meriem S. (1998). Mortalités (F et M) et analyse des rendements par recrue de Penaeus kerathurus (Forskål) du golfe de Gabès, Tunisie. Cah. Option Mediterr., 35, Dynamique des populations marines, ISSN : 1022 – 1379 : 25 - 34.

Ben Meriem S., Fiorentino F., Arneri E., Ceriola L., Gancitano V., Jarboui O., Micallef R., Mifsud R. (2013). Stock assessment of pink shrimp (Parapenaeus longirostris) in GSAs 12-16. GFCM stock assessment form submitted at the GFCM demersal stock assessment meeting in Bar, Montenegro, 03-04 February 2014.

Ben Mariem S. (2004). First approach to the growth of Penaeus kerathurus (Decapoda, Penaeidae) in the Gulf of Gabès, Tunisia. Crustaceana, 77: 277-297

Ben Meriem S., Gharbi H. (1988). Analyse préliminaire des résultats de chalutage du “HANNOUN” dans le golfe de Gabès (du 2 au 22 août 1988). Rap. Doc. Inst. natn. scient. tech. Océanogr. Pêche Salammbô, 3: 1 – 34.

Ben Meriem S., Fehri-Bedoui R., Gharbi H. (2001). Size at maturity and ovigerous period of the pink shrimp Parapenaeus longirostris (Lucas, 1846) in Tunisia. Crustaceana, 74(1): 39-48.

Ben Mustapha A. (1967). Observations biologiques sur Penaeus kerathurus Forskål et étude biométrique. Annales. Inst. natn. scient. tech. Océanogr. Pêche. Salammbô, (XIII).
Bevacqua D., Melià P., Follesa M.C., De Leo G.A., Gatto M., Cau A. (2010). Body growth and mortality of the spiny lobster Palinurus elephas within and outside a small marine protected area. Fish. Res., 106: 543-549.

Bianchini M.L., Di Stefano L., Ragonese S. (1998). Daylight vs. night variations in the red shrimp catches of the Strait of Sicily. Rapp. Comm. Int. Mer Médit, 35(2): 374-375.

Bianchini M.L. (1999). The deep-water red shrimp Aristaeomorpha foliacea of the Sicilian Channel: biology and exploitation. University of Washington Ph.D. dissertation: 482+ 17p.

Bianchini M.L., Ragonese S. (2002). Influence of the fishing ground on the estimates of growth parameters in the deep-water red shrimp (Aristaeomorpha foliacea) of the Strait of Sicily. Biol. Mar. Medit., 9(1): 732-735.

Bianchini M.L., Ragonese S., Levi D. (2003). Management hypotheses to improve yield-per-recruit and economic returns in the red shrimp (Aristaeomorpha foliacea) fishery of Southern Sicily (Mediterranean Sea). J. Northw. Atl. Fish. Sci., 31: 233-243.

Branch, T.A., Kirkwood, G.P., Nicholson, S.A., Lawlor, B., Zara, S.J. (2000). Yield version 1.0, MRAG Ltd, London, U.K.
Brian A. (1931). La biologia del fondo a "scampi" nel Mare Ligure. V. Aristaeomorpha, Aristeus ed altri macruri natanti. Boll. Mus. Zool. Anat. Comp. R. Univ. Genova, 2 ( 45) : 1-6.

Brutto, S. L., Maggio, T., Arculeo, M. (2013). Isolation By Distance (IBD) signals in the deep-water rose shrimp Parapenaeus longirostris (Lucas, 1846) (Decapoda, Panaeidae) in the Mediterranean Sea. Mar. Envir. Res., 90: 1-8.

Cacaud P. (2002) Etude comparative sur la réglementation en matière de pêche maritime dans les pays de la Méditerranée occidentale participant au projet Copemed. Projet FAO COPEMED. FAO, Rome : 34pp.

Camilleri M., Drago A., Fiorentino F., Garofalo G., Gristina M., Bahri T., Massa F. (2008) Spatial pattern of fisheries demersal resources, environmental factors and fishery activities in GSA 15. Pilot Study. MedSudMed GCP/RER/010/ITA/MSM-TD-13. MedSudMed Technical Documents, 13:105pp.

Campillo A. (1982). Premières données sur la pèche et la biologie de la langouste de Corse, Palinurus elephas Fabricius. Quad. Lab. Tecn. Pesca, 3(2-5): 115-39.

Campillo A., Amadei J. (1978). Premières données biologiques sur la langouste de Corse, Palinurus elephas Fabricius. Rev. Trav. Inst. Pêches Marit., 42: 347-373.

Campillo A., P.Y. Dremiere, B. Liorzou, Bigot J.L. (1991). Observations sur deux crustacés profonds du Golfe du Lion, Aristeus antennatus (R.) et Nephrops norvegicus (L.). Rep Sixth Techn. Consultation Gen. Fish. Coun. Mediterranean, FAO Fish. Rep., 447: 298-313

Can M.F., Aktas M. (2005). A preliminary study on population structure and abundance of Aristaeomorpha foliacea (Risso, 1827) (Decapoda, Natantia) in the deep water of the Northeastern Mediterranean. Crustaceana, 78 (8): 941-946.

Cannizzaro L., Vitale S., Arculeo M., De Stefano G., Lumare L., Milazzo A., Salvo G. (2011). Stock assessement and management by restocking of Melicertus kerathurus (Forskål, 1775) in the shallow coastal.

Cannizzaro L., Alagna A., Andreoli M.G., Gianformaggio N. (1991) Relazione taglia–peso per alcuni pesci del Canale di Sicilia. NTR–ITPP 39:33pp.

Carpenter K.E., Niem V.H. (eds) (1988). FAO species identification guide for fishery purposes. The living marine resources of the Western Central Pacific. Vol. 2. Cephalopods, crustaceans, holothurians and sharks. Rome, FAO.: 687-1396.

Carpentieri P., Colloca F., Ardizzone G. (2005) Day–night variations in the demersal nekton assemblages on the Mediterranean shelf-break. Estuar. Coast. Shelf Sci., 63:577-588.

Cartes J.E. (1995). Diets of, trophic resources exploited by, bathyal Penaeoidan shrimps from the Western Mediterranean. Mar. Freshwater Res., 46: 889-896.

Cartes J.E., Company J.B., Maynou F. (1994). Deep-water decapod crustacean communities in the Northwestern Mediterranean: influence of submarine canyons and season. Mar. Biol., 120: 221-230.

Castriota L., Campagnuolo S., Andaloro F. (2001). Shrimp trawl fishery by-catch in the Straits of Sicily (central Mediterranean Sea). Scientific Council Research Documents of the Northwest Atlantic Fisheries Organization, Serial No. N4501, No 01/113.

Cau A., Deiana A.M., Mura M. (1987). Ecological observations on Aristaeomorpha foliacea (Risso, 1987) (Decapoda, Penaeidae) in the mit-Western Mediterranean Sea. Invest. Pesq., 51 (1): 456.

Cau A., Carbonell A., Follesa M.C., Mannini A., Orsi Relini L., Politou C.Y., Ragonese S., Rinelli P. (2002). MEDITS-based information on the deep water red shrimps Aristaeomorpha foliacea and Aristeus antennatus (Crustacea: Decapoda: Aristeidae). Sci. Mar., 66 (S2): 103-124.

Ceccaldi H.J., Latrouite D. (2000). The French fisheries for the European spiny lobster Palinurus elephas. In: B.F. Phillips & J. Kittaka (Eds) Spiny Lobster Fisheries and Culture (2nd edn). Blackwell Science, Oxford, : 200–209.

Chaouachi B., Ben Hassine O.K. (1998) Données sur la pêche des crevettes profondes Parapenaeus longirostris (Lucas, 1846) en Tunisie. Cah. Options Medit., 35: 201–213.

CNR–IAMC (2006). Programma Nazionale Italiano per la raccolta di dati alieutici. Modulo “Altri campionamenti biologici”- Risorse demersali - Unità Gestionale 16 (Stretto di Sicilia): rapporto finale, CNR–IAMC, Mazara del Vallo (TP), Italy: 46pp.
CNR–IAMC (2007). Programma Nazionale Italiano per la raccolta di dati alieutici. Modulo H “Campionamento biologico delle catture” (CAMP–BIOL; Risorse demersali) - GSA 16 (Stretto di Sicilia): rapporto finale, CNR–IAMC, Mazara del Vallo (TP), Italy: 186 pp.

CNR-IAMC (2009). Programma Nazionale Italiano per la raccolta di dati alieutici 2008. Modulo I. Altri campionamenti biologici risorse demersali e piccoli pelagici - GSA 16 (Stretto di Sicilia): relazione finale, IAMC-CNR, Mazara del Vallo (TP), Italia: 79 pp.

Colloca F., M. T. Spedicato, E. Massutí, Garofalo G., G. Tserpes, P. Sartor, A. Mannini, A. Ligas, G. Mastrantonio, B. Reale, C. Musumeci, I. Rossetti, M. Sartini, M. Sbrana, F. Grati, G. Scarcella, M. Iglesias, M.P. Tugores, F. Ordines, L. Gil de Sola, G. Lembo, I. Bitteto, M.T. Facchinii, A. Martiradonna, W. Zupa, R. Carlucci, M.C. Follesa, P. Carbonara, A. Mastradonio, Fiorentino F., Gristina M., Knittweis L., Mifsud R., Pace M.L., C. Piccinetti, C. Manfredi, G. Fabi, P. Polidori, L. Bolognini, R. De Marco, F. Domenichetti, R. Gramolini, V. Valavanis, E. Lefkaditou, K. Kapiris, A. Anastasopoulou and N. Nikolioudakis, 2013 Mapping of nursery and spawning grounds of demersal fish. Mediterranean Sensitive Habitats (MEDISEH) Final Report, DG MARE Specific Contract SI2.600741, Heraklion (Greece).

Company J.B., Maiorano P., Tselepides A., Politou C.-Y., Plaiti W., Rotllant M., Sardà F. (2004). Deep-sea decapod crustaceans in the western and central Mediterranean Sea: preliminary aspects of species distribution, biomass and population structure. Sci. Mar., 68 (3): 73-86.

Conides A., Glamuzina B., Dulcic J., Kapiris K., Jug-Dujakovic J., Papaconstantinou C. (2008). Study of the reproduction of the karamote shrimp Penaeus (Melicertus) kerathurus in Amvrakikos Gulf, western Greece. Acta Adriat., 49(2): 97 – 106.

Conides A., Glamuzina B., Jug-Dujacovic J., Papaconstantinou C., Kapiris K. (2006). Age, growth, and mortality of the karamote shrimp, Penaeus (Melicertus) kerathurus (Forskål 1775) in the east Ionian Sea (Western Greece). Crustaceana, 79(1): 33-52.

Cristo M., Cartes J.E. (1998). A comparative study of the feeding ecology of Nephrops norvegicus (L.), (Decapoda: Nephropidae) in the bathyal Mediterranean and the adjacent Atlantic. Sci. Mar., 62 (1): 81-90.

Crnković D. (1965). Ispitivanje ekologije i mogućnosti racionalnog unaprijeđenja eksploatacije raka Nephrops norvegicus (L) u kanalskom području sjeveroistočnog Jadrana. Disertacija, PMF Sveučilišta u Zagrebu.

Cuccu D. (1999). Biologia ed Ecologia dell’ Aragosta Rossa (Palinurus elephas, Fabricius, 1787). Proposte Gestionali per il Recupero dello Stock. Tesi di dottorato in biochimica comparata degli ecosistemi, Ciclo XIV, Università di Sassari, 111pp.

Cuccu D., Follesa M.C., Secci E., Cau A. (1999). Preliminary data on the movement, growth, mortality and tag retention of the spiny lobster (Palinurus elephas). European crustacean conference.

Cunningham J.T. (1891). On the development of Palinurus vulgaris, the Rock Lobster or sea crayfish. J. Mar. Biol. Ass. U.K., 2: 141-150.

Cushing D.H. (1968). Fisheries biology. A study in population dynamics. University of Wisconsin Press, Madison, 200 pp.

De Ranieri S., Mori M., Sbrana M. (1998). Preliminary study on the reproductive biology of Parapenaeus longirostris (Lucas) off the northern Tyrrhenian Sea. Biol. Mar. Medit., 5(1): 710-712.

Díaz D., Marí M., Abelló P., Demestre M. (2001). Settlement and Juvenile Habitat of the European Spiny Lobster Palinurus elephas (Crustaceana: Decapoda: Palinuridae) in the Western Mediterranean Sea. Sci. Mar., 65(4): 347–356.

Dimech M., Kaiser M.J., Ragonese S., Schembri P.J. (2012). Ecosystem effects of fishing on the continental slope in the Central Mediterranean Sea. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser., 449: 41-54.

D’Onghia G., Maiorano P., Matarrese A., Tursi A. (1998). Distribution, biology and population dynamics of Aristaeomorpha foliacea (Risso, 1827) (Decapoda, Natania, Aristaeidae) in the North-Western Ionian Sea (Mediterranean Sea). Crustaceana 71 (5): 518-544.

D’Onghia G., Mastrototaro F., Matarrese A., Politou C., Mytilineou C. (2003). Biodiversity of the upper slope demersal community in the eastern Mediterranean: preliminary comparison between two areas with and without trawl fishing. J. Northw. Atlant. Fish. Sci., 31: 263.

d’Udekem d’Acoz C. (1999). Inventaire et distribution des crustace´s de´capodes de l’Atlantique nord-oriental, de la Me´diterrane´e et des eaux douces continentales adjacentes au nord de 25°N. Patrimoines Naturels (MNHN/SPN) 40: 1–383.

D’Onghia G., Matarrese A., Maiorano P., Perri F. (1998) Valutazione di Parapenaeus longirostris (Lucas, 1846) (Crustacea, Decapoda) nel Mar Ionio. Biol. Mar. Medit. 5(2):273-283.

Dos Santos A. (1998). On the occurrence of larvae of Parapenaeus longirostris off the Portuguese Coast. J. Nat. Hist., 32: 1519-1523.

Eggleston D.B., Lipcius R.N. (1992). Shelter selection by spiny lobster under variable predation risk, social conditions, and shelter size. Ecol., 73: 992-1011.

Falciai L., Minervini R. (1996). Guide des homards, crabes, langoustes, crevettes et autres. Crustacés Décapodes d’Europe. Delachaux et Niestlé SA, Lausanne-Paris. 1-287 pp.

FAO FishStat Plus 2012. Fisheries and aquaculture software. FishStat Plus - Universal software for fishery statistical time series. In: FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Department [online]. Rome. Updated 28 November 2013. Available at the URL:

Fiorentini L., Cosimi G., Sala A., Palumbo V. (1994). Caratteristiche e prestazioni delle attrezzature a strascico impiegate per la valutazione delle risorse demersali in Italia. Biol. Mar. Medit., 1 (2): 115-134.

Fiorentino F., Bono G., Garofalo G., Gristina G., Ragonese M., Gancitano S., Giusto G.B., Rizzo P., Sinacori G. (2003). A further contribution on stock’s status and fisheries of main demersal resources in the Strait of Sicily. EN/TN/FF-GB-GG-MR-SR-SG-GBG-PR-GS/4/0303/DRAFT.

Fiorentino F., Garofalo G., Gristina G., Gancitano S., Norrito G. (2004). Some relevant information on the spatial distribution of demersal resources, benthic biocoenoses and fishing pressure in the Strait of Sicily. In: Report of the MedSudMed Expert Consultation on Spatial Distribution of Demersal Resources in the Straits of Sicily and the Influence of Environmental Factors and Fishery Characteristics. GCP/RER/010/ITA/MSM-TD-02. MedSudMed Technical Documents, 2: 50-66.

Fiorentino F., Mazzola S., Garofalo G., Patti B., Gristina M., Bonanno A., Massi D., Basitone G., Cuttitta A., Giusto G.B., Gancitano S., Sinacori G., Rizzo P., Levi D., Ragonese S. (2005). Lo stato delle risorse demersali e dei piccoli pelagici e le prospettive di pesca “sostenibile” nello Stretto di Sicilia. Convenzione con Assessorato Regione Siciliana Cooperazione, Commercio, Artigianato e Pesca, Mazara del Vallo, Italy. ID/TN/FF-SM-GG-BP-MG-AB-DM-GB-AC-GBG-SG-GS-PR-DL-SR/8/0305/rel. 1:136pp.

Fischer W., Bauchot M.L., Schneider M. Eds. (1987). Fiches FAO d’identification des espèces pour les besoins de la pêche. (Révision 1). Méditerranée et mer Noire. Zone de pêche 37. Volume I. Végétaux et Invertébrés. Publication préparée par la FAO, résultat d’un accord entre la FAO et la Commission des Communautés Européennes (Projet GCP/INT/422/EEC) financée conjointement par ces deux organisations. Rome, FAO, Vo1.1: 267-268.

Follesa M.C., Cuccu D., Damele F., Sabatini A., Cau A. (2003). Valutazioni sull’accrescimento di Palinurus elephas (Fabr., 1787) tramite marcatura e ricattura nei mari sardi. Biol. Mar. Medit., 10 (2): 253-256.

Follesa M.C., Cuccu D., Cannas R., Cau A. (2007). On the growth of the European spiny lobster, Palinurus elephas from Sardinian waters (Central Western Mediterranean sea). N.Z. J. Mar. Freshw. Res., 41: 377-383.

Follesa M.C., Cuccu D., Damele F., Sabatini A., Cau A. (2007). Emigration and retention of Palinurus elephas (Fabricius, 1787) in a region of the Central Western Mediterranean MPA. Sci. Mar., 71 (2): 279-285.

Follesa M.C., Cuccu D., Cannas R., Sabatini A., Deiana A.M., Cau A. (2009). Movement patterns of the spiny lobster Palinurus elephas (Fabricius, 1787) from a central western Mediterranean protected area. Sci. Mar., 73(3): 499-506.

Froglia C., Gramitto M.E. (1988). An estimate of growth and mortality parameters for Norway lobster (Nephrops norvegicus) in the Central Adriatic Sea. FAO Fish. Rep., 394: 189-203.

Gaamour A., Rjeibi O., Bdioui M., Missaoui H. (2005). Les pêcheries de la langouste rouge Palinurus elephas de la région Nord de la Tunisie : engin de pêche, éléments biologiques et gestion. Rapport final du projet de recherche sur la langouste rouge dans le cadre des activités de recherche du projet COPEMED. Publié dans le site du Projet COPEMED.

Gaamour A., Rjeibi O., Ben Salem S., Jaziri S. (2009). Analysis of Palinurus elephas fisheries of the North coasts of Tunisia. Proceedings of TJASSST’10, edited by: A. Ghorbel, A. Ben Salem, S. Bouzayene, pp. 112-115.

Galhardo A.M., Serafim P., Castro M. (2006). Aspects of the biology and fishery of the European spiny lobster (Palinurus elephas) from the southwest coast of Portugal. J. Crust. Biol., 26: 601–609.

Galil B., Froglia C., Nöel P. (2002). CIESM Atlas of Exotic Species in the Mediterranean. Vol. 2. Crustaceans: decapods and stomatops. [F. Briand, Ed.]. 192 pages. CIESM Publishers, Monaco.

Gamulin T. (1955). Contribution à la connaissance de l´écologie de la langouste (Palinurus vulgaris Latreille) dans l'Adriatique. Act. Adriat., VII, 3-17.

Gamulin T. (1955). Contribution à la connaissance de l’écologie de la langouste (Palinurus vulgaris Latreille). Arch. Zool. Exp. Gén., 67: 32-39.

Gancitano V., Cusumano, S., Giusto, G. B, Garofalo, G., Ingrande, G., Sabatella, E., Ragonese, S., Fiorentino, F. (2008). Valutazione dello stato di sfruttamento del gambero rosso Aristaeomorpha foliacea (Risso, 1827) (Crustacea; Decapode) nello Stretto di Sicilia. Biol. Mar. Medit., 15(1): 326-327.

Gancitano V., Garofalo G., Gristina M., Ragonese S., Rizzo P., Gancitano S., Cusumano S., Ingrande G., Badalucco C., Fiorentino F. (2011). Potential Yield and Current Exploitation of Deep Water Pink Shrimp (Parapenaeus longirostris), Hake (Merluccius merluccius) and Giant Red Shrimp (Aristaeomorpha foliacea) in the Strait of Sicily. In: Brugnoli E., Cavarretta G., Mazzola S., Trincardi F., Ravaioli M., Santoleri R. (eds) Marine research at CNR - Fishery and Sea Rresources. - ISSN 2239-5172 Volume DTA/06-2011, Roma, November 2011, pp. 1-18.

Garofalo G., Fortibuoni T., Gristina M., Sinopoli M., Fiorentino F. (2011). Persistence and co-occurrence of demersal nurseries in the Strait of Sicily (central Mediterranean): Implications for fishery management. J. Sea Res., 66: 29-38.

Garofalo G., Giusto, G. B., Cusumano, S., Ingrande, G., Sinacori, G., Gristina, M., Fiorentino, F. (2007). Sulla cattura per unità di sforzo della pesca a gamberi rossi sui fondi batiali del mediterraneo orientale. Biol. Mar. Medit., 14(2): 250-251.

Gashout S., Haddoud D., Zgozi S. (1992) Distribution–abundance of commercial shrimp in Libyan waters, data from 1970 surveys. Arab Fish. J., Vol. 13.

Gayanilo Jr. F.C., Soriano M., Pauly D. (1988). A draft guide to the COMPLEAT ELEFAN. ICLARM Software Project 2: 65 p. and diskettes

Gayanilo Jr. F.C., Sparre P., Pauly D. (1994). The FAO-ICLARM Stock Assessment Tools (FiSAT) User's guide. FAO Computerized Information Series (Fisheries) No. 8 Rome, FAO, 124 p. and 3 diskettes.

Gayanilo Jr. F.C., Sparre P., Pauly D. (2005). Food And Agriculture Organization Of The United Nations – Fisat II (version 1.2.2) Rome, 2005.

George J.P. (1977). Prospection des lieux de pêche de la crevette Penaeus kerathurus et introduction d'une nouvelle technique de pêche pour ce crustacé en Tunisie (1973-1975). Bull. Inst. natn. scient. tech. Océanogr. Pêches Salammbô, 4 (2-4): 263 - 306.

Gharbi A., Ben Meriem S. (1996). Résultats de chalutages expérimentaux (mai-juin 1996) dans le golfe de Gabès. Bulletin de l’Institut National des Sciences et Technologies de la Mer, 23: 80-96.

Ghidalia W., Bourgeois F. (1961). Influence de la temperature et de l’eclairement sur la distribution des crevettes des moyennes et grandes profondeurs. Stud. Rev. Gen. Fish. Count. Medit., FAO: 16: 53 pp.

Giacalone V.M., D’anna G., Pipitone C., Badalamenti F. (2006). Movements and residence time of spiny lobsters Palinurus elephas released in a marine protected area: an investigation by ultrasonic telemetry. J. Mar. Biol. Ass. U.K., 86: 1101-1106.

Gislason H., Daan N., Rice J.C., Pope J.G. (2010). Size, growth, temperature and the natural mortality of marine fish. Fish Fish., 11: 149–158.

Goñi R., Hilborn R., Diaz D., Mallol S., Adlerstein S. (2010). Net contribution of spillover from a marine reserve to fishery catches. Mar. Ecol. Prog. S., 400: 233-243.

Goñi R., Latrouite D. (2005). Review of the biology, ecology and fisheries of Palinurus spp. species of European waters: Palinurus elephas (Fabricius, 1787) and Palinurus mauritanicus (Gruvel, 1911). Cah. Biol. Mar., 46(2): 127-142.

Goñi R., Quetglas A., Reñones O. (2001a). Diet of the spiny lobster Palinurus elephas (Decapoda: Palinuridea) from the Columbretes Islands Marine Reserve (north-western Mediterranean). J. Mar. Biol. Ass. U.K., 81: 347-348.

Goñi R., Quetglas A., Renones O. (2006). Spillover of spiny lobsters Palinurus elephas from a marine reserve to an adjoining fishery. Mar. Ecol. Progr. Ser., 306: 207-219.

Goñi R., Quetglas A., Reñones O., Mas, J. (2003c). Threats to the sustainability of Palinurus elephas fisheries. The Lobster Newsletter, 16, 2–5.

Goñi R., Quetglas A., Reñones R. (2003d). Biología, ecología, pesquerías y efecto reserva de la langosta roja, Palinurus elephas Fabricius 1787 de Columbretes y Baleares (Mediterráneo Occidental). Report 03-01, 1-107. 2003. IEO-COB/LANGOSTA.

Goñi R., Quetlas A., Reñones O. (2003a). Size at maturity, fecundity and reproductive potential of a protected population of the spiny lobster Palinurus elephas (Fabricius, 1787) from the Western Mediterranean. Mar. Biol., 143: 583-592.

Goñi R., Quetlas A., Reñones O. (2003b). Differential catchability of male and female European spiny lobster Palinurus elephas (Fabricius, 1787) in traps and terammelnets. Fish. Res., 65: 295-307.

Goñi R., Reñones O., Quetglas A. (2001b). Dynamics of a protected western mediterranean population of the european spiny lobster Palinurus elephas (Fabricius, 1787) assessed by trap survey. Mar. Freshw. Res., 52: 1577–1587.

Goñi, R. (2006). Proyecto langosta. Biología, ecología, pesquerías y efecto reserva de la langosta roja Palinurus elephas (Fabricius 1787) en el Mediterráneo Español. Revista electrónica del IEO 4, 21-26. 2006.

Groffiths R.C., Robles R., Coppola S.R., Camiñas J.A. (2007). Is there a future for artisanal fisheries in the western Mediterranean? FAO, Rome. 106pp.

Gristina M., Fiorentino F., Garofalo G., Ragonese S., Gagliano M. (2002). Gli effetti della protezione sull'aragosta comune (Palinurus elephas Fabricius, 1787) nella riserva marina delle "Isole Egadi". Report Rapporto preliminare, ID/W.PR./MG-FF-GG-SR-MG/2/07/02/DRAFT, 1-23.. Mazara del Vallo (TP), Italy, Instituto di Ricerche sulle Risorse Marine e l'Ambiente - Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche.

Gristina M., Fiorentino F., Garofalo G., Gagliano M., Morizzo G., Cusumano S. (2005). Effetti della protezione sull'aragosta comune (Palinurus elephas Fabricius, 1787) nella Riserva Marina delle Isole Egadi. Biol. Mar. Medit., 12: 404-409.

Gristina M., Fiorentino F., Garofalo G., Sinopoli M. (2008). L’aragosta comune Palinurus elephas (Fabricius, 1878), nell’Area Marina Protetta di Capo Gallo – Isola Delle Femmine. Processi di reclutamento ed impatto della pesca. Pesca e gestione delle aree marine protette, workshop Porto Cesareo, 30 - 31 ottobre 2008.

Gristina M., Sinopoli M., Fiorentino F., Garofalo G.,·Badalamenti F. (2011). Shelter selection of the spiny lobster Palinurus elephas under different levels of Octopus vulgaris predation threat. Mar. Biol., 158: 1331–1337.

Groeneveld J.C., Goni R., Latrouite D. (2006). "Palinurus species". In Bruce F. Phillips. Lobsters: Biology, Management, Aquaculture and Fisheries. John Wiley & Sons. pp. 385–411. ISBN978-1-4051-2657-1.

Guijarro B., Valls M., Massutí E. (2010). SAC GFCM - Sub-Committee on Stock Assessment (SCSA). 27 September 2010.

Guillen J., Maynou F., Floros C., Sampson D., Conides A., Kapiris K. (2012). A bio-economic evaluation of the potential for establishing a commercial fishery on two newly developed stocks: The Ionian red shrimp fishery. Scientia Marina, 76 (3). doi:10.3989/scimar.03434.07I.

Hammond R.D., Naylor E. (1977). Effects of dusk and dawn on locomotor activity rhythms in the Norway lobster Nephrops norvegicus. Mar. Biol., 39: 253-260.

Hassan H. (1983). Distribution of penaeid larvae in the coastal waters of Pakistan. Ph.D. thesis, University of Karachi, Pakistan. pp. 288.

Heldt H. (1938). La reproduction chez les Crustacés décapodes de la famille des Pénéides. Inst. Océanogr., 18: 1-206.

Heldt H., Heldt J.H. (1954). Les crustacés comestibles des mers tunisiennes et leur pêche. Annales Sta. Océanogr. Salammbô, 9: 3 – 16.

Heldt J. (1955). Contribution a l’etude e la biologie des crevettes peneides Aristaeomorpha foliacea (Risso) et Aristeus antennatus (Risso). Bull. Soc. Des Sc. Tunisie, VIII (1-2): 1-29.

Heldt J.H. (1932). Sur quelques différences sexuelles (Coloration, Taille, Rostre) chez deux crevettes tunisiennes : Panaeus caramote Risso et Parapenaeus longirostris Lucas. Bull. Sta. Océanogr. Salammbô, (27): 1 - 25.

Heldt J.H. (1938). La reproduction chez les Crustacés Décapodes de la famille des Pénéides. Ann. Inst. Océanogr. Paris, 28: 1 – 206.

Heldt J.H. (1954). Contribution à l’étude de la biologie des Pénéides. Bull. Sta. Océanogr. Salammbô, 47: 5 - 27.

Hepper B.T. (1967). Observation on a crawfish (Palinurus vulgaris Latr.) tagging experiment off Cornwall in 1966. ICES CM. Shelfish and Benthos Committee, 13: 1-4

Hepper B.T. (1970). Observation on the growth of crawfish, Palinurus vulgaris Latr. Off the coast of cornwall. ICES CM. Shelfish and Benthos Committee, 9: 1-10.

Holthuis L.B. (1980). Shrimps and prawns of the world. FAO. Fish. Synop. 125 (1), 271 p.

Holthuis L.B. (1987). Invertébrés marins : Les crevettes. In : Fiches FAO d’identification des espèces pour les besoins de la pêche. Zone 37. Révision. W. Fisher M.L. Bauchot M. Schneider (eds), FAO. Publ. Vol. 1, Rome, pp : 189-292.

Holthuis L.B. (1991). FAO Species Catalogue, Marine Lobsters of the World – FAO Fisheries Synopsis N° 125, Vol 13. Rome, FAO: 115-122.

Hunter E. (1999). Biology of the european spiny lobster, Palinurus elephas (Fabricius, 1787) (Decapoda, Palinuridea). Crustaceana, 72(6): 545-567.

Hunter E., Shackley S.E., Bennett D.B. (1996). Recent studies on the crawfish Palinurus elephas in South Wales and Cornwall. J. Mar. Biol. Ass. U.K., 76: 963-983.

IMBC, UMBSM, and IRPEM. (1994). Nephrops norvegicus stock variability and assessment in relation to fishing pressure and environmental factors. Final report to EC, contract XIV-1/MED/91/003.

IRMA–CNR (1999). Valutazione delle risorse demersali nello Stretto di Sicilia (Mar Mediterraneo) nell’ambito del piano quadriennale 1996–99: rapporto finale – vol. 1–2. Gruppo Nazionale Valutazione Risorse Demersali (GRUND), Unità Operativa n° 11, IRMA–CNR, Mazara del Vallo (TP), Italy: 97pp.

Jarboui O. (2009). Available information on closed season in the MedSudMed and CopeMed II area Tunisian case study. In: Report of the Sub-regional Working Group on demersal shared stocks in the MedSudMed and CopeMed II area Mazara del Vallo (Italy), 16-17 September 2010. Presented to the 9th MedSudMed Coordination Committee. 24-25 March 2011, Capo Granitola-Mazara del Vallo, Italy.FAO-MedSudMed: CC9/Info06. 46pp.

Jaziri H., Ben Meriem S. (2011) Changement spatio-bathymétrique de la taille de la crevette, Penaeus kerathurus (Forskål, 1775) par sexe et localisation en Tunisie. 13 eme Journée des Sciences Marine Tunisie et deuxième rencontre franco-tunisienne d’Ichtyologie 26-29 Novembre 2011. Communication par poster. Mahdia, Tunisia, unpublished.

Jimenez S., Cano R., Bayle J., Sanchez-Lizaso J.L. (1996). Las praderas de Posidonia oceanica (L.) Delile como zona de proteccion de juveniles de especies de interés comercial. Tomo Extraordinario, 125 Aniversario de la Real Sociedad Española de Historia Natural: 375-378.

Kapiris K. (2012). Feeding Habits of Both Deep-Water Red Shrimps, Aristaeomorpha foliacea and Aristeus antennatus (Decapoda, Aristeidae) in the Ionian Sea (E. Mediterranean). Food Quality, Kostas

Kapiris (Ed.), ISBN: 978-953-51-0560-2, InTech.

Karani I., Kitsos M.S., Chartosia N., Koukouras A. (2005). Diet Composition of the Penaeid Shrimp, Melicertus Kerathurus (Forskål, 1775) (Decapoda, Penaeidae) in the Aegean Sea. Crustaceana, 78 (4): 385-396.

Karlovac O. (1965). Contribution à la connaissance de la biologie de la langouste commune (Palinurus elephas Fabr.) Note préliminaire). Rapports et Procès-Verbaux des Réunions du CIESMM. XVIII: 181-184.

Kirkwood G.P., Aukland R., Zara S.J. (2001). Length Frequency Distribution Analysis (LFDA), version 5.0. MRAG Ltd, London, U.K.

Knittweis L., Dimech M. (2009). Assessment of nursery and spawning areas of commercially important species in GSA 15. Presentation given at the 11th session of the GFCM Sub-Committee on Stock Assessment (SCSA) held on the 30/11/2009 – 03/12/2009 in Malaga, Spain.

Knittweis L., Dimech M. (2011). Malta’s Fisheries Management Plan 2011-2015; Annex VII – Proposed Fishing Protected Area in International Waters; Recommendations based on the spatial distribution of commercially important species in GSA 15.

Knittweis L., Arneri E., Ben Meriem S., Dimech M., Fiorentino F., Gancitano V., Jarboui O., Mbarek K.B., Ceriola L. (2013). Stock status and potential yield of deep water rose shrimp (Parapenaeus longirostris, Lucas 1846) in the south-central Mediterranean Sea. MedSudMed Technical Documents. No. 28. GCP/RER/010/ITA/MSM-TD-28, Rome, 2013: 15 pp.

Kosmas K., Maria T.L. (2012) Reproductive biology of the Melicertus kerathurus (Decapoda: Penaeidae) in Thermaikos Gulf (N. Aegean Sea) : 1-15.

Lamboeuf M., Ben Abdallah A., Zgozi S., Natati A., Mer A., Abdubari A. (1995). Libyan marine resource assessment. Trawl survey results 1993–1994. FI:DP/LIB/88/009 – FI:GCP/LIB/021/IsDB, FAO, Tripoli–Rome. Technical Briefing Notes, 26: 83pp.

Latrouite D., Noel P. (1997). Pêche de la langouste rouge Palinurus elephas en France, éléments pour fixer une taille marchande. ICES CM 1997/BB: 13.

Levi D., Andreoli M.G., Giusto R.M. (1995). First assessment of the rose shrimp, Parapenaeus longirostris (Lucas 1846), in the central Mediterranean. Fish. Res., 21: 375-393.

Levi D., Vacchi M. (1988). Macroscopic scale for simple and rapid determination of sexual maturity in Aristaeomorpha foliacea (Risso, 1826) (Decapoda, Penaeidae). J. Crust. Biol,. 8 (4): 532-538.

Ligas A., Abella A., Colloca F. (2011). SAC GFCM - Sub-Committee on Stock Assessment (SCSA). 17 October 2011.

Lipcius R.N., Herrnkind W.F. (1987). Control and coordination of reproduction and molting in the spiny lobster Palinurus argus. Mar. Bio., 96: 207-214.

Lleonart J., Salat J. (1997). VIT: software for fishery analysis. User's manual. FAO Computerized Information Series (Fisheries). No. 11. Rome, FAO: 105pp.

Loo L.O., Baden S.P., Ulmestrand M. (1993). Suspension feeding in adult Nephrops norvegicus (L.) and Homarus gammarus (L.) (Decapoda). Neth. J. Sea Res., 31 (3): 291-297.

Maiorano P., Sion L., Carlucci R., Capezzuto F., Giove A., Costantino G., Panza M., D’Onghia G., Tursi A. (2010). The demersal faunal assemblage of the north-western Ionian Sea (central Mediterranean): current knowledge and perspectives. Chemistry and Ecology, 26 (Suppl.): 219–240.

Marano G., Ungaro N., Marzano M.C., Marsan R. (1998). Le Risorse Demersali dell'Adriatico pugliese: analisi di una serie storica ('85-'95) relativa ai dati di cattura e demografia degli stock. Biol. Mar. Medit., 5 (2): 52-67.

Marcias S., Sacco F., Cau A., Cannas R. (2010). Microsatellite markers for population genetic studies of the giant red shrimp Aristaeomorpha foliacea (Crustacea, Decapoda). Rapp. Comm. Int. Mer Medit., 39.

Marin J. (1985). Etude de la croissance des Crustaces à partir des données de marquages-recaptures. Application à la langouste rouge de Corse, Palinurus elephas Fabricius. Journal du Conseil International pur l'Exploration de la Mer 26, 1-17.

Marin J. (1985). La lanoguste rouge: biologie et exploitation. Pêche maritime, 64: 105-113.

Marin J. (1987). Exploitation, biologie et dynamique du stock de langouste rouge de Corse, Palinurus elephas, Fabricius 1787. Thesis, University College, Galway. 331 pp.

Matarrese A., D’Onghia G., Tursi A., Maiorano P. (1997). Vulnerabilità e resilienza in Aristaeomorpha foliacea (Risso, 1827) e Aristeus antennatus (Risso, 1861) (Crostacei, Decapodi) nel Mar Ionio. S. It. E. Atto, 18: 535-538.

Maurin C. (1962). Etude des fonds chalutables de la Méditerranée occidentale (écologie et pêche): Résultats des compagnes des navires océanographiques «Président-Théodore-Tissier» 1957 à 1960 et « Thalassa » 1960 et 1961.26, ISTPM. 218 pp.

Maurin C. (1965). Repartition des erevettes profondes au large des cotes de Sardaigne et de Corse. Rapp. Comm. int. Mer Medit., 18 (2): 175-178

Maurin C., Carries C. (1968). Note préliminaire sur l’alimentation des Crevettes profondes. Rapp. Comm. Int. Mer Médit., 19(2): 155-156.

Maynou F., Cartes J.E. (2011). Effects of trawling on fish and invertebrates from deep-sea coral facies of Isidella elongata in the western Mediterranean. Journal of the Marine Biological Association U.K., 92 (7): 1501-1507.

Maynou F., Sardà F. (1997). Nephrops norvegicus population and morphometrical characteristics in relation to substrate heterogeneity. Fish. Res., 30: 139 –149.

McKoy J.L., Esterman D.B. (1981). Growth of rock lobsters (Jasus edwardsii) in the Gisborne region. N. Z. J. Mar. Freshw. Res., 15: 121–136.
MedSudMed (2008). Bibliographic synthesis of information on some target species in the MedSudMed Project area (central Mediterranean). MedSudMed Technical Documents 15, Rome: 69 pp.

Mercer J.P. (1973). Studies on spiny lobsters (Crustacea: Decapoda: Palinuridae) of the west coast of Ireland, with particular reference to Palinurus elephas Fabricius 1787. Ph.D. Thesis, University College Galway, Ireland, 331 pp.

Minervini R. (1996). Guide des homards, crabes, langoustes, crevettes et autres crustacés décapodes d’Europe. 287 p. Delachaux et Niestlé.

Missaoui H. (2004). The effects of environmental factors on the distribution of crustaceans along the Tunisian coast. MedSudMed Technical Documents 2.

Missaoui H., Zaouali J. (1995). Apparition de nouveaux Crustacés dans les pêches crevettières du golfe de Gabès, Tunisie. Marine Life, 5 (2): 27 - 34.

Morratoupolu Kassimati E. (1973). Distribution and fishing of the lobster Palinurus vulgaris and Homarus vulgaris in Greek seas. Rapp. Comm. Int. Mer. Médit., 22(4): 69-70.

Mosbah S., Ghorbel M., Jarboui O., Lenfant P., Verdoit-Jarraya M. (2012). Application des methodes d’analyses des donnees pour la gestion des ressources naturelles. Statistique Fonctionelle et Operationelle. Recueil des resumes, Annee 2011-2012: 3-9.

Mytilineou C., Castro M., Gancho P., Fourtouni A. (1998) Growth studies on Norway lobster, Nephrops norvegicus (L.), in different areas of the Mediterranean Sea and the adjacent Atlantic. Sci. Mar., 62 (Supl. 1): 43-60.

Mytilineou C., Castro M., Gancho P., Fourtouni A. (1998). Growth studies on Norway lobster, Nephrops norvegicus (L.) in different areas of the Mediterranean Sea and the adjacent Atlantic. Sci. Mar., 62 (1): 43-60.

Nouar A. (1985). Contribution a l’étude de la crevette pénéide Parapenaeus longirostris (Lucas, 1846), dans la région d’Alger: écologie, biologie, exploitation. PhD thesis, Univ. Houari Boumedienne, 136 pp.

Needle C.L. (2003) Survey-based assessments with SURBA. Working Document to the ICES Working Group on Methods of Fish Stock Assessment, Copenhagen, 29 January to 5 February 2003.

Newman G.G., Pollock D.E. (1974). Growth of the rock lobster Jasus lalandii and its relationship to benthos. Mar. Biol., 52: 347–356.

Orsi Relini L., Relini G. (1985). The red shrimp fishery in the Ligrian Sea: mismanagement or not? FAO Fish. Rep., 336: 99-106.

Orsi Relini L., Relini G. (1989). Reproduction of Nephrops norvegicus L. in isothermal mediterranean waters. In Reproduction, Genetics and Distributions of Marine Organisms. Ed. J.S. Ryland, P.A. Tyler, Pub. Olsen e Olsen, Denmark: 153-160.

Orsi Relini L., Zamboni A., Fiorentino F., Massi D. (1998). Reproductive patterns in Norway lobster Nephrops norvegicus (L.), (Crustacea Decapoda Nephropidae) of different Mediterranean areas. Sci. Mar., 62 (1): 25-41.

Palero F., Abelló P., Macpherson E., Matthee C.M., Pascual M. (2011). Genetic Diversity Levels in Fishery-Exploited Spiny Lobsters of the Genus Palinurus (Decapoda: Achelata).

Palero F., Guerao G., Abelló P. (2008). Morphology of the final stagephyllosoma larva of Scyllarus pygmaeus (Crustacea: Decapoda: Scyllaridae), identified by DNA analysis. J. Plank. Res., 30: 483–488.

Palero F., Guerao G., Clark P.F., Abelló P. (2011). Scyllarus arctus (Crustacea: Decapoda: Scyllaridae) final stage phyllosoma identified by DNA analysis, with morphological description. Mar. Biol. Ass. U. K., 91(2): 485-492.

Palero, F., Abello, P., Macpherson, E., Gristina, M., Pascual, M. (2008). Phylogeography of the European spiny lobster (Palinurus elephas): Influence of current oceanographical features and historical processes. Molec. Phyl. Evol., 48: 708-717.

Papaconstantinou C., Kapiris K. (2003). The biology of giant red shrimp (Aristaeomorpha foliacea) at an unexploited fishing ground in the Grek Ionian Sea. Fish. Res., 62: 37-51.

Pauly D. (1980). On the interrelationships between natural mortality, growth parameters and mean environmental temperature in 175 fish stocks. J. Cons. CIEM, 39 (3):175-192.

Pauly, D. (1987) A review of the ELEFAN system for analysis of length-frequency data in fish and aquatic invertebrates. In: D. Pauly and G.R. Morgan (eds.) Length-Based methods in fisheries researches.

Proc. Int. Conference on the theory and application of length-based methods for stock assessment, 11-16 February 1985, Mazara del Vallo, Sicily, Italy, ICLARM Conference Proceedings 13: 7-34.

Pellerito R., Arculeo M., Bonhomme F. (2009) Recent expansion of Northeast Atlantic and Mediterranean populations of Melicertus (Penaeus) kerathurus (Crustacea:Decapoda). Fish. Sci.,75:1089–1095. DOI 10.1007/s12562-009-0131-z.

Perdichizzi A., Pirrera L., Micale V., Muglia U., Rinelli P. (2012). A histological study of ovarian development in the giant red shrimp Aristaeomorpha foliacea (Crustacea: Decapoda: Aristeidae) from the Southern Tyrrhenian Sea (Western Mediterranean). Scient. World J. doi: 10.1100/2012/289608.

Peres J.M. (1967). The Mediterranean benthos. Oceanography and Marine Biology: an Annual Review, 5: 449–533.

Pérez Farfante I., Kensley B. (1997). Penaeoid and sergestoid shrimps and prawns of the world. Keys and diagnoses for the families and genera. Mém. Mus. Nat. Hist. Nat., 175: 1-233.

Pipitone C., Badalamenti F., Cuttitta C., D’Anna G., Gristina M. (1994). Preliminary results on the diet of Aristaeomorpha foliacea in the Sicilian Strait (Central Mediterranean Sea). Proc. Int. Workshop on life cycles and fisheries of red shrimps. N.T.R.-I.T.P.P. Spec. Publ., 3: 47-48.

Politou C.Y., Kapiris K., Maiorano P., Capezzuto F., Dokos J. (2004). Deep-Sea Mediterranean biology, the case of A. foliacea (Risso, 1827) (Crustacea, Decapoda, Aristeidae). Sci. Mar., 68 (3): 117-127.

Pollock D.E. (1979). Predator-prey relationship between the rock lobster Jasus lalandii and the mussel Aulocomya ater at Robben Island on the Cape west coast of Africa. Mar. Biol., 52: 347–356.

Pollock D.E. (1982). The fishery and population dynamics of West Coast rock lobster related to the environment in the Lambert’s Bay and Port Nolloth areas. Investigations of the Sea Fisheries Institute of South Africa, 124: 57 pp.

Pollock D.E. (1991). Spiny lobster at Tristan da Cunha, South Atlantic: inter-island variations in growth and population structure. S. Afr. J. Mar. Sci., 10: 1–12.

Pollock D.E., De Beyers C.J. (1981). Environment, distribution and growth rates of West Coast rock-lobster Jasus lalandii (H. Milne Edwards). Trans. Royal Soc. S. Afr., 44: 379–400.

Quetglas A., Gaamour A., Reñones O., Missaoui H., Zarrouk T., Elabed A., Goñi R. (2004). Spiny lobster (Palinurus elephas, Fabricius 1787) fisheries in the western Mediterranean: A comparison of Spanish and Tunisian fisheries. Boll. Soc. Hist. Nat. Baleares, 47: 63-80.

Ragonese S. (1995). Geographical distribution of Aristaeomorpha foliacea (Crustacea-Aristeidae) in the Sicilian Channel (Mediterranean Sea). ICES J. Mar. Sci. Symp., 199: 183-188.

Ragonese S., Abella A., Fiorentino F., Spedicato M.T. (2006). Methods for estimating the instantaneous rate of natural mortality (M) in fisheries science with particular reference to the Mediterranean. Biol. Mar. Medit., 13(3): 78-151.

Ragonese S., Andreoli M.G., Bono G., Giusto G.B., Rizzo P., Sinacori G. (2004). Overview of the available biological information on demersal resources of the Strait of Sicily. GCP/RER/010/ITA/MSM-TD-02. MedSudMed Technical Documents 2: 67-74.

Ragonese S., Bertolino F., Bianchini M.L. (1997). Biometric relationships of the red shrimp Aristaeomorpha foliacea (Risso 1827), in the Strait of Sicily (Mediterranean Sea). Sci. Mar., 61(3): 367-377.

Ragonese S., Bianchini M.L. (1995). Size at sexual maturity in red shrimp females Aristaeomorpha foliacea, from the Sicilian Channel (Mediterranean Sea). Crustaceana, 68 (1): 73-82.

Ragonese S., Bianchini M.L. (2006). Trawl selectivity trials on the deep-water rose shrimp (Parapenaeus longirostris) in Sicilian waters. Hydrobiologia, 557: 113–119.

Ragonese S., Giusto G.B. (1998). Deep water occurrence of Penaeus kerathurus (Forskål, 1775) (Decapoda, Penaeidae) in the Strait of Sicily (central Mediterranean Sea). Crustaceana, 71: 353-357.

Ragonese S., Vitale S., Dimech M., De Santi A. (2012). Growth discontinuity in males of the deep-water giant red shrimp Aristaeomorpha foliacea in the Mediterranean Sea. Mar. Ecol., 33: 386–392.

Ragonese S., Zagra M., Di Stefano L., Bianchini M.L. (2001). Effect of codend mesh size on the performance of the deep-water bottom trawl used in the red shrimp fishery in the Strait of Sicily (Mediterranean Sea). Hydrobiologia, 449: 279-291.

Rainer S.F. (1992). Diet of prawns from the continental slope of North-Western Australia. Bull. Mar. Sci., 50(2): 258-274.

Rao P.V. (1972). Seasonal abundance of larvae and post-larvae of the Commercially important penaeid prawns in the inshore Waters of Cochin. Ind. J. Fish., 19 (1-2): 86-96.

Rawag A.A., Haddoud D.A., Zgozi S.W. (2004). Commercial demersal marine species of Libya. GCP/RER/010/ITA/MSM-TD-02. MedSudMed Technical Document, 2: 75-81.

Relini G., Bertrand J., Zamboni A. (eds.) (1999). Synthesis of the knowledge on bottom fishery resources in Central Mediterranean (Italy and Corsica). Biol. Mar. Medit., 6 (1).

Relini M., Torchia G. (1998). Unexpected displacement of a spiny lobster in the Ligurian sea. Biol. Mar. Medit., 5: 641-643.

Rikhter V.A., Efanov V.N. (1976). On one of the approaches to estimation of natural mortality of fish populations. ICNAF Res.Doc., 79/VI/8 : 12pp.

Rjeibi O. (2012). Biologie et dynamique des populations de la langouste rouge Palinurus elephas pêchée sur les côtes tunisiennes. Thèse de doctorat de l’Institut National Agronomique de Tunisie spécialité Halieutique, Tunisie. 281 pp.

Rjeibi O., Gaamour A., Missaoui H. (2010). Kinetics of ooegenesis and spawning strategy of the red spiny lobster Palinurus elephas. J. Crust. Biol., 30: 401-412.

Rjeibi O., Gaamour A., Missaoui H. (2011). Etude de la croissance de la langouste rouge, Palinurus elephas dans les eaux tunisiennes. Bull. Inst. Natn. Scien. Tech. Mer de Salammbô, vol 38.

Rjeibi O., Gaamour A., Rjeibi O., Missaoui H. (2010). Kinetics of ooegenesis and spawning strategy of the red spiny lobster Palinurus elephas. J. Crust. Biol., 30: 401-412.

SAMED (2002). Stock Assessment in the Mediterranean. European Commission, Directorate-General XIV, Project 99/047, Final Report.

Sardà F., Lleonart J., Cartes J.E. (1998). An analysis of the population dynamics of Nephrops norvegicus (L.) in the Mediterranean Sea. SCI. MAR., 62 (Supl. 1): 135-143.

Scordella G., Lumare F. (2001). Stato delle popolazioni di Penaeus kerathurus: valutazione dello sforzo di pesca e della produttivita nelle aree di Termoli (CB), Lesina (FG) e Frigole (LE). In: Proceedings of the Workshop Stato della pesca e dinamica di popolazione del gambero mediterraneo Penaeus kerathurus in alcune aree della costa adriatica, Lecce, 16 Marzo. pp. 20–27.

Secci E., Cuccu D., Follesa M.C., Cau A. (1999). Fishery and tagging of Palinurus elephas in Sardinian seas. In: Von-Vaupel Klein, J.C., Schram F.R. (eds.) Fourth International Crustacean Congress Procedings of the Fourth International Crustacean Congress, Amsterdam. Brill, Leiden, 665-672. Amsterdam. Brill, Leiden., A.A. Balkema/Rotterdam/Brookfield. The Biodiversity Crisis and Crustacea. 20-7-1998.

Secci E., Cuccu D., Follesa M.C., Sabatini A., Cau A. (1999). Restocking of Palinurus elephas (Fabr, 1787) in a Western Central Sardinian area. Biol. Mar. Medit., 6: 614-616.

Serpil Y., Becer Ozvarol Z.A., Ozvarol Y. (2009). Fisheries and Shrimp Economy, Some Biological Properties of the Shrimp Metapenaeus monoceros (Fabricus, 1798) in the Gulf of Antalya (Turkey). J. Anim. Vet. Adv., 8: 2530-2536.

Sheehy M.R.J. (1990a). Widespread occurrence of fluorescent morphological lipofuscin in the crustacean brain. J. Crust. Biol., 10: 613-622.

Sheehy M.R.J. (1990b). Potential of morphological lipofuscin age-pigment as an index of crustacean age. Mar. Biol. Berlin, 107: 439-442.

Sheehy M.R.J., Cameron E., Marsden G., Mcgrath J. (1995). Age structure of female giant tiger prawns Penaeus monodon as indicated by neuronal lipofuscin concentration. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser., 117: 59-63.

Sobrino I., Silva C., Sbrana M., Kapiris K. ( 2005). A review of the biology and fisheries of the deep water rose shrimp, Parapenaeus longirostris, in European Atlantic and Mediterranean waters (Decapoda, Dendrobranchiata, Penaeidae). Crustaceana, 78: 1153–1184.

Spedicato M.T., Lembo G., Silecchia T., Carbonara P. (1996). Distribuzione e biologia di Parapenaeus longirostris nel Tirreno centro-meridionale. Biol. Mar. Medit., 3(1): 579-581.

STECF (2013). In: Cardinale M., Charef A., Osio C. (eds.) Assessment of Mediterranean Sea stocks part 1 (STECF-13-22) Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union, ISBN 978-92-79-34645-3, doi:10.2788/36268, 400 pp.

STECF 11-14 (2011). Assessment of Mediterranean Sea stocks – part 2. Report of the Scientific, Technical and Economic Committee for Fisheries. JRC scientific and policy reports, edited by Cardinale M., Raetz J.-J., Charef A., EUR 25053 EN. 611 pp.

STECF 12-19 (2012). Assessment of Mediterranean Sea stocks – part 1. Report of the Scientific, Technical and Economic Committee for Fisheries. JRC scientific and policy reports, edited by Cardinale M., Osio G.C., Charef A., pending EUR number. 502 pp.

Symonds D.J. (1972). The fishery for the Norway lobster, Nephrops norvegicus (L.), off the north-east coast of England. Fishery Investigations, Series II, 27(3): 35pp..

Tabka-Belkhodja S. (2004). Contribution à l’étude écobiologique de la crevette blanche Metapenaeus monoceros (Fabricius) dans le golfe de Gabès. Mastère. INAT. 68 p.

Taylor C.C. (1959). Temperature and growth. J. Conseil. Explor. Mer., 25 (1): 93-101.

Tidu C., Sardá R., Pinna M., Cannas A., Meloni M.F., Lecca E., Savarino R. (2004). Morphometric relationships of the European spiny lobster Palinurus elephas from the northwestern Sardinia. Fish. Res., 69: 371-379.

Tsagarakis K., Palialexis A., andVassilopoulou V. (2013). Mediterranean fishery discards: reviewof the existing knowledge. – ICES Journal of Marine Science, 71 (5): 1219-1234. doi: 10.1093/icesjms/fst074.

Tuck I.D., Chapman C.J., Atkinson R.J.A. (1997). Population biology of the Norway lobster, Nephrops norvegicus (L.) in the Firth of Clyde, Scotland-I: Growth and density. ICES J. Mar. Sci., 54: 125-135.

Turkmen G, Yilmazyerli H. (2006). Some biological aspects of Melicertus kerathurus (Forskål, 1775) (Decapoda, Penaeidae) Inhabiting Izmir Bay (Aegean Sea) Turkey. Crustaceana, 79(5): 583-591.

Turkmen G., Ozden O., Parug S., Akalin S. (2007). Some Reproductive Aspects of Melicertus kerathurus (Forskål, 1775) (Decapoda, Penaeidae) Inhabiting the Gulluk Bay (Aegean Sea) of Turkey. J. App. Biol. Sci., 1(1): 69-74, 2007.

Tursi A., Matarrese A., D’Onghia G., Maiorano P., Mastrotataro F., Balanini M., Panza M. (1999). Parapenaeus longirostris. In: Relini G., Bertrand J.A., Zamboni A. (eds.) Synthesis of knowledge on bottom fishery resources in central Mediterranean (Italy and Corsica). Biol. Mar. Medit., 6(1): 541-553.

Ungaro N., Marano G., Marsan R., Pastorelli A.M. (1999). On the reproduction of Nephrops norvegicus (L.) in the Southern Adriatic Sea (Mediterranean Sea): sex ratio, maturity length and potential fecundity. Crustacean Issues, 12: 553-561.

Véron G. (1995). Organisation et classification du règne animal. Nathan : 128 pp.

Vila Y., Medina A., Megina C., Ramos F., Sobrino I. (2000). Quantification of the agepigment lipofuscin in brains of known-age, pond-reared prawns Penaeus japonicus (Crustacea, Decapoda). Journ. exp. Zool., 286: 120-130.

Vitale S., Cannizzaro L., Lumare F., Arculeo M., Mazzola S. (2013). Restocking trial of Melicertus kerathurus (Decapoda, Penaeidae) in the shallow coastal waters of southwestern Sicily (Mediterranean Sea). Rapp. Comm. Int. Mar Medit. 2013.

Vitale S., Cannizzaro L., Bono G., Beltrano A.M., Milazzo A., Norrito G. (2006). Catch composition of Decapoda crustaceans from trawl fishery catches in the Central Mediterranean Sea. J. Coast. Res., Special Issue, 39 (1): 1798-1800.

Vitale S., Cannizzaro L., Lumare L., Mazzola S. (2010). Population parameters of Melicertus kerathurus (Decapoda, Penaeidae) in Southwest Sicilian shallow waters (Mediterranean Sea) using Length-Frequency Analysis. Crustaceana, 83 (8): 997-1007. DOI:10.1163/001121610X510615.

Wadie W.F., Abdel Razek F.A. (1985). The effect of damming on the shrimp population in the south-eastern part of the Mediterranean Sea. Fish. Res., 3: 323–335.

Wilson D.P. (1949). Notes from the Plymouth aquarium, an apparent example of learning in Palinurus vulgaris Latreille. J. Mar. Biol. Ass. U. K., 28: 347.

Zimmer-Faust R.K., Tyre J.E. Case J.F. (1985). Chemical attraction causing aggregation in the spiny lobster, Panulirus interruptus (Randall), and its probable ecological significance. Biol. Bull., 169: 106-l 18.

Zitari-Chatti R., Chatti N., Elouaer A., Said K. (2008). Genetic variation and population structure of the camarote prawn Penaeus kerathurus (Forskål) from the eastern and western Mediterranean coasts in Tunisia. Aquac. Res., 39: 70–76.

Zouari M., (1984). Etude descriptive de la pêche à la crevette au filet tramail fil 40.000 dans la région de Gabès. Rapp. Doc. Inst. natn. scient. tech. Océanogr. Pêche Salammbô, 2: 31 - 45.

    ::HOME    ::THE PROJECT    ::ACTIVITIES    ::PUBLICATIONS    ::EVENTS    ::Country Fishery Information   

FAO MEDSUDMED Project  FAO-FIRF Room C351-C353 -Viale delle Terme di Caracalla 00153 Rome -Italy-
::: tel  +39 06 570 54492 ::: fax +39 06 570 55188 -


© FAO MedSudMed project - Web site. [online]. Rome. Updated. [Cited ].